Unlike conventional antibodies which have both a heavy and a light chain, camelids (comprising mammals that include the camels, llamas, and alpacas) can produce antibodies that have a single heavy chain antigen-recognition domain (known as VHH) capable of binding to small antigens. These smaller antibodies accommodate easier genetic engineering into nanobodies, reducing production costs while maintaining high affinity, high specificity, and improved thermostability and solubility. The VHH structure lends itself to the addition of scaffold and tags for effective detection and other experimental applications.

Advantages of Camelid Antibodies

Superior chemical and physical properties accommodates diverse research, therapeutic, and diagnostic applications.

Absence of light chain associated with low immunogenicity.

Smaller VHH size allows for easier delivery into tissues and through physiological barriers not accessible to conventional antibodies.


The only service using single B cell sorting and cloning with alpacas in concert with phage display platform to improve diversity.

Reliable animal source with IACUC-approved processes.

NGS and AI-assisted algorithm combined with expertise in unique immunization techniques to maximize titer .

Higher versatility and lower production cost.

Case Study - SMabTM Platform for VHH Nanobody Development

Camelid Antibody Production Processs


Antigen Preparation

  • Antigen Analysis & Design
  • Antigen Synthesis

8-20 WEEKS*


  • Immunization
  • Titer Testing
  • B Cell Isolation



  • Sort Antigen-specific B Cells
  • B Cell Culturing
  • Primary screening Using ELISA Or Other Assays If Desired



  • Antibody Gene Cloning
    And Secondary Screening
  • Construct Expression
  • Expressions
  • Purification
  • Validation Assays

*Full transparency on immunization and production schedule unique to project, contact service@abclonal.comfor details.


  • 100 µg of each desired clone from project.
  • Camelid VHH genes cloned into expression vectors.
  • Full transparency and personalized service from start to finish.