The NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) protein family is a pleiotropic transcription factor. The most basic NF-κB signaling pathway includes receptor and receptor proximal signaling cohesion proteins, IκB kinase complexes, IκB proteins, and NF-κB dimers. When cells undergo various intracellular and extracellular stimuli, IκB kinase is activated, resulting in phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IκB protein, which is then deprotected. The NF-κB dimer is then released and further activated by various post-translational modifications before being transferred to the nucleus. In the nucleus, it binds to the targeted gene to facilitate gene transcription.