Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) is a nearly ubiquitous pathway responsible for mediating DNA transcription, and thereby cell function. The pathway is activated by a variety of stimuli, including cellular stress, cytokines, free radicals, UV radiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial/viral infection.

Activated NF-kB translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to specific sequences of DNA called response elements. This DNA/NF-kB complex then recruits RNA polymerase and other coactivators, which transcribe downstream DNA into mRNA for protein synthesis.

Incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development.